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Parvovirus

Efficient ELISA testing solutions for reliable results.

ZEUS ELISA™ Parvovirus B19 Test Systems (now U.S. FDA-approved) enable fast, accurate results to aid in diagnosis of fifth disease and immunity screening during pregnancy

ZEUS ELISA™ Parvovirus B19 Test Systems receive U.S. FDA-approval! Click here for more information.

Human parvovirus B19 is a simple single-stranded DNA virus found globally. It infects only humans, causing fifth disease (erythema infectiosum) in children and fetal complications during pregnancy. Up to 20% of infected adults or children have no symptoms or develop a very mild, nonspecific, cold-like illness.

Infected people are generally contagious before they develop overt symptoms, and may spread the virus through respiratory secretions when coughing or sneezing. It can also spread through blood or blood products; therefore, a pregnant woman can pass the virus to the fetus.

Fifth disease may start with symptoms such as fever, runny nose, and/or headache, followed by the classic red "slapped cheek” rash on the face. The rash may spread to other parts of the body and become itchy, varying in intensity before dissipating (typically in seven to 10 days). Individuals can also develop pain and swelling in joints (polyarthropathy syndrome) which may last for weeks to months; these symptoms usually disappear with no long-term problems. This syndrome is more typical in adults (especially women) than in children.

Infection with parvovirus B19 during pregnancy can lead to serious complications, including severe fetal anemia, myocarditis, congestive heart failure, and fetal hydrops. There is also a 2-6% chance of fetal loss. Infections during the first trimester carry the lowest risk due to reduced levels of antibody within the fetus, while second trimester pregnancies are most vulnerable due to increased hematopoiesis in the liver. If a pregnant woman is exposed, acute infection should be confirmed by the presence of IgM antibody, seroconversion of IgG, or both. If an acute infection is confirmed, the fetus should be monitored frequently due to the risk of fetal hydrops.

(Please note: Human parvovirus B19 is different from the parvovirus that infects dogs and cats, and cannot be transmitted between people and animals.)

ZEUS ELISA™ Parvovirus B19 Test Systems provide a flexible, efficient means for qualitative detection of IgG and IgM class antibodies to human parvovirus B19 in human serum or plasma

  • Seamless integration with virtually all other assays in the ZEUS ELISA menu, using common reagents and a universal protocol to achieve the most efficient automation workflow
  • Universal assay protocol features more flexible incubation times than other currently available ELISA methods and allows for minimal training time and faster adoption in your laboratory

Together, the results of these assays may be used to determine the overall serological status of a woman of childbearing age when there is suspicion of exposure to human parvovirus B19. Results should be considered presumptive for risk of fetal infection of human parvovirus B19. ZEUS ELISA™ Parvovirus B19 Test Systems can also be used to aid in the diagnosis of fifth disease.

REFERENCES

  1. Berns KI. 1996. Parvoviridae: the viruses and their replication. In: Fields BN, Knipe DM, Howley PM, Chanock RM, Melnick JL, Monath TP, Roizman B, and S. E. Straus SE, eds. Fields Virology, Lippincott-Raven, Philadelphia, PA, 2173-2197.
  2. Servey JT et al. Clinical Presentations of Parvovirus B19 Infection. Am Fam Physician, 75(1):373-376, 2007.
  3. Anderson MJ et al. Experimental parvoviral infection in humans. J Infect Dis, 152:257-265, 1985.
  4. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Parvovirus B19 and Fifth Disease. http://www.cdc.gov/parvovirusB19/fifth-disease.html
  5. Heegaard ED and Brown KE. Human Parvovirus B19. Clin Microbiol Rev, 15(3):485-505, 2002.
  6. Morey AL et al. Clinical and histopathological features of parvovirus B19 infection in the human fetus. B J Obstet Gynaecol, 99:566-574, 1992.